Final year electrical projects in karimnagar

FINAL YEAR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

final year electrical is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electro magnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the later half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electric power distribution and use. Subsequently, broad casting and recording media made electronics part of daily life. The invention of the transistor, and later the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in almost any household object.

Final year Electrical engineering has now subdivided into a wide range of sub fields `including electronics, digital computers, power engineering, tele communications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing, instrumentation, and microelectronics. Many of these sub disciplines overlap and also overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations such as hardware engineering, power electronics, electro magnetics & waves, microwave engineering, nanotechnology, electro chemistry, renewable energies, mechatronics, electrical materials science, and many more.

MATLAB

MATLAB stands for Matrix Laboratory. Matlab is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and fourth-generation programming language. It allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in other languages, including C, C++, Java, FORTRAN and Python. MATLAB is a very powerful, high level language. It is empowered with good number of libraries and toolboxes that we can use directly, so that we need not to program low level functions. It enables us to display very easily results on graphs and images. To get started with it, you need to understand how to manipulate and represent data, how to find information about the available functions and how to create scripts and functions to generate programs. This course is designed for comprehensive coverage of Matlab from down-to-the-earth level.

final year electrical

Final year electrical projects in warangal

Final year electrical projects Asoka technologies provide Final year electrical projects in warangal

Final year electrical projects  ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electro magnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the later half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electric power distribution and use. Subsequently, broad casting and recording media made electronics part of daily life. The invention of the transistor, and later the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in almost any household object.

Electrical engineering has now subdivided into a wide range of sub fields `including electronics, digital computers, power engineering, tele communications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing, instrumentation, and microelectronics. Many of these sub disciplines overlap and also overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations such as hardware engineering, power electronics, electro magnetics & waves, microwave engineering, nanotechnology, electro chemistry, renewable energies, mechatronics, electrical materials science, and many more.

Final year electrical projects

major electrical projects in hyderabad

major electrical projects in Hyderabad.

Major electrical projects ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electro magnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the later half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electric power distribution and use. Subsequently, broad casting and recording media made electronics part of daily life. The invention of the transistor, and later the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in almost any household object.

Electrical engineering has now subdivided into a wide range of sub fields `including electronics, digital computers, power engineering, tele communications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing, instrumentation, and microelectronics. Many of these sub disciplines overlap and also overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations such as hardware engineering, power electronics, electro magnetics & waves, microwave engineering, nanotechnology, electro chemistry, renewable energies, mechatronics, electrical materials science, and many more.

POWER ELECTRONICS is the application of solid-state electronics to the control and conversion of electric power. The first high power electronic devices were mercury-arc valves. In modern systems the conversion is performed with semiconductor switching devices such as diodesthyristors and transistors, pioneered by R. D. Middlebrook and others beginning in the 1950s. In contrast to electronic systems concerned with transmission and processing of signals and data, in power electronics substantial amounts of electrical energy are processed. An AC/DC converter (rectifier) is the most typical power electronics device found in many consumer electronic devices, e.g. television sets, personal computers, battery chargers, etc. The power range is typically from tens of watts to several hundred watts. In industry a common application is the variable speed drive (VSD) that is used to control an induction motor. The power range of VSDs start from a few hundred watts and end at tens of megawatts.

major electrical projects

Final year electrical projects in andhra pradesh

Final year electrical projects in andhra pradesh 2017/2018

Software Used: Matlab/Simulink

Areas : Power Electronics and Drives, Power Systems, Renewable Energy and sources, etc

Download

Contact us:

email: asokatechnologies@gmail.com

website: www.asokatechnologies.in

Asoka technologies provide Final year electrical projects in andhra pradesh

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electro magnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the later half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electric power distribution and use. Subsequently, broad casting and recording media made electronics part of daily life. The invention of the transistor, and later the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in almost any household object.

Electrical engineering has now subdivided into a wide range of sub fields `including electronics, digital computers, power engineering, tele communications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing, instrumentation, and microelectronics. Many of these sub disciplines overlap and also overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations such as hardware engineering, power electronics, electro magnetics & waves, microwave engineering, nanotechnology, electro chemistry, renewable energies, mechatronics, electrical materials science, and many more.

POWER ELECTRONICS is the application of solid-state electronics to the control and conversion of electric power. The first high power electronic devices were mercury-arc valves. In modern systems the conversion is performed with semiconductor switching devices such as diodes, thyristors and transistors, pioneered by R. D. Middlebrook and others beginning in the 1950s. In contrast to electronic systems concerned with transmission and processing of signals and data, in power electronics substantial amounts of electrical energy are processed. An AC/DC converter (rectifier) is the most typical power electronics device found in many consumer electronic devices, e.g. television sets, personal computers, battery chargers, etc. The power range is typically from tens of watts to several hundred watts. In industry a common application is the variable speed drive (VSD) that is used to control an induction motor. The power range of VSDs start from a few hundred watts and end at tens of megawatts.

Engineering electrical projects in telangana

engineering electrical projects

  engineering electrical projects Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricityelectronics, and electromagnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the later half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electric power distribution and use. Subsequently, broadcasting and recording media made electronics part of daily life. The invention of the transistor, and later the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in almost any household object.

engineering electrical projects

Variable speed drive with PFC front-end for three-phase induction motor

 

ABSTRACT:

 A variable frequency drive for an induction motor is proposed. The drive uses a power factor (PF) correction bridgeless single-ended primary inductor converter-controlled rectifier operating in discontinuous inductor current mode as a front-end in order to improve the input power quality and a variation of the constant volts per hertz controller, with feedback to regulate the velocity of the motor shaft. The frequency slip is measured and compensated, since the input stage. Experiments with and without load are carried out and presented. Input power quality measurements are also presented. The proposed system is effective to regulate the velocity and achieving a close to unity PF.

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1 Proposed AC–DC–AC converter

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

 

Fig. 2 Results from experiments I and II

Fig. 3 Input voltage and current waveforms and input current harmonics

a Input voltage and current waveforms, Channel 1 for current and Channel 2 for voltage. Current is measured by V–I converter with 1 V:1.6 A conversion ratio

b First 39 non-fundamental current harmonics

 CONCLUSION:

The proposal of an SEPIC converter as the front-end of single-phase to three-phase AC–DC–AC converter for an induction motor for improving the input power quality is presented. It is also shown a variation of the CVH controller to regulate the angular velocity of the motor shaft using the aforementioned topology. The controller compensates the frequency slip, due to mechanical load, since the rectifying stage. The experimental results show that the topology is effective for regulating the velocity and that the topology can achieve a close to unity PF and low THD. The computed spectrum can be used to design passive input filters and further improve the THD and the PF of the circuit.

REFERENCES:

1 Moghani, J.S., and Heidari, M.: ‘High efficient low cost induction motor drive for residential applications’. Int. Symp. Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion, 2006 SPEEDAM 2006, Taormina, Italy, May 2006, pp. 1399–1402

2 Singh, S., and Singh, B.: ‘A voltage-controlled PFC Cuk converter-based PMBLDCM drive for air-conditioners’, Trans. Ind. Appl., 2012, 48, (2), pp. 832–838

3 Bist, V., and Singh, B.: ‘An adjustable-speed PFC bridgeless buck–boost converter-fed BLDC motor drive’, Trans. Ind. Electron., 2014, 61, (6), pp. 2665–2677

4 Abe, K., Haga, H., Ohishi, K., and Yokokura, Y.: ‘Fine current harmonics reduction method for electrolytic capacitor-less and inductor-less inverter based on motor torque control and fast voltage feedforward control for IPMSM’, Trans. Ind. Electron., 2017, 64, (2), pp. 1071–1080

5 APA Sabzali, A.J., Ismail, E.H., Al-Saffar, M.A., and Fardoun, A.A.: ‘New bridgeless DCM SEPIC and Cuk PFC rectifiers with low conduction losses’, Trans. Ind. Appl., 2011, 47, (2), pp. 873–881

Single-Phase Active Power Filtering Method Using Diode-Rectifier-Fed Motor Drive

2013, IEEE

ABSTRACT: This paper presents a single-phase high power factor motor drive system with active power filter function. Since most of electrical equipment connected to the grid must comply with regulations regarding grid current harmonics, motor drive systems are generally equipped with Power Factor Corrector (PFC) which is comprised of power switches and reactive components, e.g., inductor and capacitor. The reactive components are bulky and increase the system cost especially in low-cost applications such as electrical home appliances. In this paper, a new motor drive algorithm which is capable of both driving a permanent magnet motor and filtering the harmonic currents produced by other non-linear loads belong to the system is proposed. Since the input current of the drive system is directly controlled by manipulating not the motor current reference but the output voltage reference of the inverter, it is possible to achieve exact and immediate control of the grid current. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is validated by experiments with a permanent magnet motor drive system.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Active damping
  2. Constant power load
  3. Dc-link capacitor
  4. Dc-link voltage stabilization
  5. Electrolytic capacitor
  6. Power factor corrector

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

                    Figure 1. Block diagram of the input current control and the active power filter function.

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

Figure 2. (a) Motor currents (a-phase current in the stationary frame and d-q axes currents in the syncronous reference frame) with the proposed input current control, and (b) grid current, dc-link voltage, speed error and estimated torque.

Figure 3. Experimental results : input current of non-linear load and motor drive, grid current, dc-link voltage of both diode-rectifier (a) with the input current control algorithm, (b) with both the input current control and the active harmonic filtering algorithms, (c) three-phase motor currents (ia, ib, ic), grid voltage and current.

Figure 4. (a) PFC operation at light motor load (15% motor load) , and (b) during load change from 15% to 100% motor load.

CONCLUSION:

In motor drive systems supplied by a single-phase grid, the problems of input harmonic currents have been mitigated by a PFC, which makes the system bulk and expensive. In this paper, a power factor correction method for motor drive systems without PFC has been proposed. In the proposed system, the dc-link capacitor is reduced for continuous conduction of diode rectifier front end. And, the input current is controlled by directly manipulating the inverter output voltage according to the motor currents and the input current reference. Since the input current can be shaped into any waveforms using the proposed input current control method, it is also possible to eliminate the harmonics in the grid current that other electric loads generate by injecting the opposite harmonics. It was validated by experiments that the input current can be controlled using the proposed algorithm and the harmonic currents from other non-linear loads can be actively suppressed.

REFERENCES:

[1] Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Part 3-2: Limits-Limits for Harmonic Current Emissions (Equipment Input Current≤ 16 A Per Phase), International Standard IEC 61000-3-2, 2005, 2013.

[2] H. Endo, T. Yamashita and T. Sugiura, “A high-power-factor buck converter”, in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf. (PESC), pp.1071 -1076 Jun. /Jul., 1992.

[3] L. Yen-Wu and R. J. King, “High performance ripple feedback for the buck unity-power-factor rectifier”, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp.158 -163, 1995

[4] B. Chen , Y. Xie , F. Huang and J. Chen, “A novel single-phase buck PFC converter based on one-cycle control”, in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Motion Control Conf. (IPEMC), vol. 2, pp.1 -5 Aug., 2006.

[5] W. W. Weaver and P. T. Krein, “Analysis and applications of a current-sourced buck converter”, in Proc. IEEE Appl. Power Electron. Conf. (APEC), pp.1664 -1670 Feb. /Mar., 2007.

Power Quality Improvement of PMSG Based DG Set Feeding Three-Phase Loads

IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 2015

ABSTRACT: This paper presents power quality improvement of PMSG (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator) based DG (Diesel Generator) set feeding three-phase loads using STATCOM (Static Compensator). A 3-leg VSC (Voltage Source Converter) with a capacitor on the DC link is used as STATCOM. The reference source currents for the system are estimated using an Adaline based control algorithm. A PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) current controller is using for generation of gating pulses of IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors) of three leg VSC of the STATCOM. The STATCOM is able to provide voltage control, harmonics elimination, power factor improvement, load balancing and load compensation. The performance of the system is experimentally tested on various types of loads under steady state and dynamic conditions. A 3-phase induction motor with variable frequency drive is used as a prototype of diesel engine with the speed regulation. Therefore, the DG set is run at constant speed so that the frequency of supply remains constant irrespective of loading condition.

KEYWORDS:

  1. STATCOM
  2. VSC
  3. IGBTs
  4. PMSG
  5. PWM
  6. DG Set
  7. Power Quality

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1 Configuration of PMSG based DG set feeding three phase loads.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

Fig. 2. Dynamic performance at linear loads (a) vsab, isa,isb and isc ,(b) vsab, iLa,iLb and iLc (c) Vdc, isa,iLa and iCa

CONCLUSION:

The STATCOM has improved the power quality of the PMSG based DG set in terms voltage control, harmonics elimination and load balancing. Under linear loads, there has been negligible voltage variation (From 219.1 V to 220.9 V) and in case of nonlinear load, the voltage increases to 221 V. Thus, the STATCOM has been found capable to maintain the terminal voltage of DG set within ± 0.5% (220 ±1 V) under different linear and nonlinear loads.

Under nonlinear loads, the load current of DG set is a quasi square with a THD of 24.4 %. The STATCOM has been found capable to eliminate these harmonics and thus the THD of source currents has been limited to 3.9 % and the THD of terminal voltage has been observed of the order of 1.8%. Therefore, the THDs of source voltage and currents have been maintained well within limits of IEEE-519 standard under nonlinear load.

It has also been found that the STATCOM maintains balanced source currents when the load is highly unbalanced due to removal of load from phase ‘c’. The load balancing has  also been achieved by proposed system with reduced stress on the winding of the generator.

The proposed system is a constant speed DG set so there is no provision of frequency control in the control algorithm.

However, the speed control mechanism of prototype of the diesel engine is able to maintain the frequency of the supply almost at 50 Hz with small variation of ±0.2 %.

Therefore, the proposed PMSG based DG set along with STATCOM can be used for feeding linear and nonlinear balanced and unbalanced loads. The proposed PMSG based DG set has also inherent advantages of low maintenance, high efficiency and rugged construction over a conventional wound field synchronous generator based DG set.

 REFERENCES:

[1] Xibo Yuan; Fei Wang; Boroyevich, D.; Yongdong Li; Burgos, R., “DC-link Voltage Control of a Full Power Converter for Wind Generator Operating in Weak-Grid Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol.24, no.9, pp.2178-2192, Sept. 2009.

[2] Li Shuhui, T.A. Haskew, R. P. Swatloski and W. Gathings, “Optimal and Direct-Current Vector Control of Direct-Driven PMSG Wind Turbines,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol.27, no.5, pp.2325-2337, May 2012.

[3] M. Singh and A. Chandra, “Application of Adaptive Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System for Sensorless Control of PMSG-Based Wind Turbine With Nonlinear-Load-Compensation Capabilities,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol.26, no.1, pp.165-175, Jan. 2011.

[4] A. Rajaei, M. Mohamadian and A. Yazdian Varjani, “Vienna-Rectifier-Based Direct Torque Control of PMSG for Wind Energy Application,” IEEE Trans. Industrial Elect., vol.60, no.7, pp.2919-2929, July 2013.

[5] Mihai Comanescu, A. Keyhani and Dai Min, “Design and analysis of 42-V permanent-magnet generator for automotive applications,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol.18, no.1, pp.107-112, Mar 2003.

Power Factor Correction in Bridgeless-Luo Converter Fed BLDC Motor Drive

IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 2013

ABSTRACT:

This paper presents a power factor correction (PFC) based bridgeless-Luo (BL-Luo) converter fed brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive. A single voltage sensor is used for the speed control of BLDC motor and PFC at AC mains. The voltage follower control is used for a BL-Luo converter operating in discontinuous inductor current mode (DICM). The speed of the BLDC motor is controlled by an approach of variable DC link voltage, which allows a low frequency switching of voltage source inverter (VSI) for electronic commutation of BLDC motor; thus offers reduced switching losses. The proposed BLDC motor drive is designed to operate over a wide range of speed control with an improved power quality at AC mains. The power quality indices thus obtained are under the recommended limits of IEC 61000-3-2. The performance of the proposed drive is validated with test results obtained on a developed prototype of the drive.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Bridgeless Luo Converter
  2. Brushless DC motor
  3. Power Factor Correction
  4. Power Quality
  5. Voltage Source Inverter

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Proposed PFC BL-Luo Converter fed BLDC motor drive.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

 Fig. 2. Test results of proposed BLDC motor drive (a) At rated load  torque on BLDC motor with Vdc=50V and Vs=220V, (b) At rated load torque on BLDC motor with Vdc=200V and Vs=220V

Fig. 3. Test results of proposed BLDC motor drive showing (a) iLi1, iLo1, VC1 with Vs, (b) PFC converter’s switch voltage and current at rated load torque on BLDC motor (c) Enlarged waveforms of PFC converter’s switch voltage and current.

Fig. 4. Test results of proposed BLDC motor drive showing dynamic performance (a) during starting at 50V, (b) during change in DC link voltage from 100V to 150V, (c) during change in supply voltage from 250 to 180V.

CONCLUSION:

A Power Factor Correction based BL-Luo converter fed BLDC motor drive has been proposed for wide range of speeds and supply voltages. A single voltage sensor based speed control of BLDC motor using a concept of variable DC link voltage has been used. The PFC BL-Luo converter has been designed to operate in DICM and to act as an inherent power factor preregulator. An electronic commutation of the BLDC motor has been used which utilizes a low frequency operation of VSI for reduced switching losses. The proposed BLDC motor drive has been designed and its performance is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink environment for achieving an improved power quality over wide range of speed control. Finally, the performance of proposed drive has been verified experimentally on a developed hardware prototype. A satisfactory performance of proposed drive has been achieved and is a recommended solution for low power applications.

REFERENCES:

[1] C. L. Xia, Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor Drives and Controls, Wiley Press, Beijing, 2012.

[2] T. Kenjo and S. Nagamori, Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motors, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1985.

[3] R. Krishnan, Electric Motor Drives: Modeling, Analysis and Control, Pearson Education, India, 2001.

[4] T. J Sokira and W. Jaffe, Brushless DC Motors: Electronic Commutation and Control, Tab Books, USA, 1989.

[5] H. A. Toliyat and S. Campbell, DSP-based Electromechanical Motion Control, CRC Press, New York, 2004.

power factor correction

Latest Projects List

Brushless DC motor drive with power factor regulation using Landsman converter

IET Power Electronics, 2016

 ABSTRACT: This study presents a novel configuration of power factor regulation (PFR)-based Landsman converter feeding a brushless DC motor (BLDCM) drive for low-power (400 W) white goods applications. The speed control of the drive is achieved through adjusting the DC bus voltage of voltage source inverter (VSI) feeding to a BLDCM. Moreover, low frequency switching signals are used for electronic commutation of BLDCM, which reduces the switching power losses of six solid-state switches of VSI. This Landsman converter-based front-end power factor corrector operating in discontinuous inductor current mode is used to control DC bus voltage and PFR is achieved inherently. The DC bus voltage of the drive is controlled by using a single DC voltage sensor. For evaluating the performance of proposed drive, a prototype is developed in the laboratory. The performance of the BLDCM is also analysed for its operation at varying AC mains voltage (90–265 V). Experiential results for power quality indices are found within the limits of power quality standard IEC 61000-3-2.

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1Circuit configurations of a PFR based

Proposed drive scheme of a Landsman converter fed PMBLDCM drive

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

Fig. 2 Performance of proposed drive at rated torque on motor

a Steady-state performance of the proposed BLDCM drive at rated load on BLDCM with DC-link voltage as 200 V and supply voltage as 220 V

b–d Obtained power quality indices

Fig. 3 Performance of proposed drive at rated load on motor

a Steady-state performance of the proposed BLDCM drive at rated load on BLDCM with DC-link voltage as 60 V and supply voltage as 220 V

b–d Obtained power quality indices

Fig. 4 Performance of PFR-based Landsman converter

a Input and output inductor’s currents and intermediate capacitor’s waveforms

b Current and voltage stress on a PFR switch at rated load on BLDCM at rated condition

Fig. 5 Dynamic performances of the proposed BLDCM drive system during

a Starting at 60 V

b Speed control for variation in DC bus voltage from 100 to 150 V

c Load variation

d Supply voltage change from 260 to 210 V

CONCLUSION:

A PFR-based Landsman converter fed BLDCM drive has been proposed for the use in low power household appliances. Adjustable voltage control of DC bus of VSI has been used to control the speed of BLDCM which eventually has given the freedom to operate the VSI in low frequency switching operation for minimum switching losses. A front-end Landsman converter-based PFR operating in DICM has been applied for double objectives of DC bus voltage control and achieving a UPF at AC supply. Resulted performance for presented drive has been found quite satisfactory for its operation at variation of speed over a wide range. A prototype of Landsman-based BLDCM drive has been implemented with acceptable test results for its operation over complete speed range and its operation over universal AC mains. The stress of the PFR converter switch has been evaluated to conclude its feasibility. The obtained power quality parameters are found within the limit of various international standards like as IEC 61000-3-2.

REFERENCES:

1 Gieras, J.F., Wing, M.: ‘Permanent magnet motor technology-design and application’ (Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 2011)

2 Xia, C.L.: ‘Permanent magnet brushless DC motor drives and controls’ (Wiley Press, Beijing, 2012)

3 Zhu, Z.Q., Howe, D.: ‘Electrical machines and drives for electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles’, IEEE Proc., 2007, 95, (4), pp. 746–765

4 Sozer, Y., Torrey, D.A., Mese, E.: ‘Adaptive predictive current control technique for permanent magnet synchronous motors’, IET Power Electron., 2013, 6, pp. 9–19

5 Hung, C.W., Lin, C.T., Liu, C.W., et al.: ‘A variable-sampling controller for brushless DC motor drives with low-resolution position sensors’, IEEE Trans.Ind. Electron., 2007, 54, (5), pp. 2846–2852